Ernest Hartmann: Selected Papers to 2013



This website contains his recent work on dreams, nightmares, and boundaries in the mind.
See also page 2: NEW and BOOKS
This website mirrors in part Dr. Hartmann's personal website, which is no longer online. He passed away in August 2013 at age 79.

Boundaries of the Mind

EHs original bibliography as of 2013 comprised documents all in MS Word.  On this mirror site, the documents have been converted to standard PDF or left in Powerpoint.


Dr. Hartmann was a professor of psychiatry at Tufts University School of Medicine, past president of the International Association for the Study of Dreams, and first Editor-in-Chief of Dreaming.

One of the world's foremost researchers on dreaming, sleep, and personality, he authored nine books and 350+ articles on these subjects.

His theory comprises 3 elements: Dreaming is just one form of mental functioning, occurring along a continuum from focused waking thought to reverie, daydreaming, and fantasy.  Second, dreaming is hyperconnective, linking material more fluidly  and making connections that aren't made as readily in waking thought.  Third, the connections aren't random, but rather are guided by the dreamer's emotions or emotional concerns.

Boundaries are everywhere in both our internal and external world.

 "Thickness of boundaries represents a neglected dimension of personality, one that can help us understand aspects of our lives that no other measure can explain." - EH

I deeply agree with this statement and am inspired to create this website.  I'd hate to see Hartmann's notions be overlooked since they have so much importance. - James Duncan
(My SumBound score is 426, which is radically "thin".  What is yours?)



"Hi, this is Dr. Ernest Hartmann. I have been asked repeatedly to make my work more accessible online. So here are some recent published papers, as well as a few unpublished talks in the form of Powerpoint presentations. They deal with dreaming, daydreaming, Boundaries in the Mind (Thick and Thin Boundaries) and some related topics. If you are interested especially in dreams, there is a lot of good material at"

The Boundary Questionnaire
This is the 146 item questionnaire measuring thinness of boundaries, known as the BQ
Scoring the BQ-1
Scoring the BQ-2
Carefully read & follow instructions to get a correct SumBound score.  Mean is 271 +/- 50. Range is 120-454.  Scoring the BQ is a rather complex process.

There are many online short form BQ's that are automatically scored.  Those will quickly report a person's boundaries tendency with far less effort.

NEW You can now take the long form BQ online with fast machine scoring HERE.

Boundaries in the Mind Past Research and Future Directions (North Amer J Psychol)

Boundaries and Dreams

LIFEGUIDE A Plan to Reduce Crime Child Abuse and Mental Illness 1995 (unpublished)

The Nature and Functions of Dreaming in The New Science of Dreaming III (2008) 171to192

Scoring Dreams for Contextualizing Images (2007)

A Systematic Change in Dreams After 9 11 01 SLEEP (2008)

The Central Image makes Big Dreams big 2008 Dreaming

The Nightmare is the Most Useful Dream 1999

We Do Not Dream of the 3 Rs Implications for the Nature of Dreaming and Mentation 2000 Dreaming 10 103to111

The Contemporary Theory of Dreaming 2006 to 2007 (Powerpoint)

Meteorite or Gemstone

Dreaming always makes new connections
(Sleep Medicine Clinics 5:241-248, 2010;
Dreaming, 20: 149-168, 2010)

Ernest Hartmann, 50 years of Sleep and Dream Research (YouTube video for World Sleep Day March 2011)